2018年上半年全国大学英语四六级考试于6月

来源:http://www.i-pob.net 作者:巴黎人-在线教育 人气:172 发布时间:2019-11-10
摘要:Passage One 2018年上5个月全国民代表大会学斯洛伐克共和国(The Slovak Republic卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar)语四六级考试于一月10日开展,新浪引导24钟头全程关怀,为你端来第一手四六级考

  Passage One

  2018年上5个月全国民代表大会学斯洛伐克共和国(The Slovak Republic卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar)语四六级考试于一月10日开展,新浪引导24钟头全程关怀,为你端来第一手四六级考试资源消息。以下为罗马尼亚(România卡塔尔国语四级留心翻阅深入分析:

“When you wake up in the morning, Pooh," said Piglet at last, "what's the first thing you say to yourself?"

  Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage。

  Section C

"What's for breakfast?" said Pooh. "What do you say, Piglet?"

  Living in an urban area with green spaces has a long-lasting positive impact on people’s mental well-being, a study has suggested, UK researchers found moving to a green space had a sustained positive effect, unlike pay rises or promotions, which only provided a short –term boost。 Co-author Mathew White, from the University of Exeter, UK, explained that the study showed people living in greener urban areas were displaying fewer signs of depression or anxiety。 “There could be a number of reasons。” he said, “for example, people do many things to make themselves happier; they strive for promotion or pay rises, or they get married。 But the trouble with those things is that within six months to a year, people are back to their original baseline levels of well-being。 So, these things are not sustainable; they don’t make us happy in the long term。 We found that for some lottery (彩票) winners who had won more than £500,000 the positive effect was definitely there, but after six months to a year, they were back to the baseline。”

  Direction: There are 2 passages in this section。 Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statement。 For each of them there are four choice and our marked A),B),C) and D)。You should decide on the best choice and nark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet2 with a single line through the centre。

"I say, I wonder what's going to happen exciting today?" said Piglet.

  Dr。 White said his team wanted to see whether living in greener urban areas has a lasting positive effect on people’s sense of well-being or whether the effect also disappeared after a period of time。 To do this, the team used data from the British Household Panel Survey compiled by University of Essex。

  Passage One

Pooh nodded thoughtfully. "It's the same thing," he said.”

  Explaining what the data revealed, he said: “what you see is that even after three years, mental health is still better, which is unlike many other things that we think will make us happy。” He observed that people living in green spaces were less stressed, and less mm sensible decisions and communicated better。

  Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage。

  With a growing body of evidence establishing a link between urban green spaces and a positive impact on human well-being。 Dr。 White said, “There’s growing interest among public policy officials, but the trouble is who funds it。 What we really need at a policy level is to decide where the money will come from to help support good quality local green spaces。”

  46。 Living in an urban area with green spaces has a long-lasting positive impact on people’s mental well-being, a study has suggested, UK researchers found moving to a green space had a sustained positive effect, unlike pay rises or promotions, which only provided a short –term boost。 Co-author Mathew White, from the University of Exeter, UK, explained that the study showed people living in greener urban areas were displaying fewer signs of depression or anxiety。 “There could be a number of reasons。” he said, “for example, 47。 people do many things to make themselves happier; they strive for promotion or pay rises, or they get married。 But the trouble with those things is that within six months to a year, people are back to their original baseline levels of well-being。 So, these things are not sustainable; they don’t make us happy in the long term。 We found that for some lottery  winners who had won more than £500,000 the positive effect was definitely there, but after six months to a year, they were back to the baseline。”

Click on any of the boxes in the chart above to take you to the relevant part of this page or clickherefor a larger version of the chart.

  46。 According to one study, what do green spaces do to people?

  48。 Dr。 White said his team wanted to see whether living in greener urban areas has a lasting positive effect on people’s sense of well-being or whether the effect also disappeared after a period of time。 To do this, the team used data from the British Household Panel Survey compiled by University of Essex。

Boredom and Happiness at Work

  A) Improve their work efficiency。

  Explaining what the data revealed, he said: “what you see is that even after three years, mental health is still better, which is unlike many other things that we think will make us happy。” 49。 He observed that people living in green spaces were less stressed, and less sensible decisions and communicated better。

Results of a PCP poll for theTDAon 2113 graduates aged 21 to 45.

  B) Add to their sustained happiness。

  With a growing body of evidence establishing a link between urban green spaces and a positive impact on human well-being。 Dr。 White said, “There’s growing interest among public policy officials, but the trouble is who funds it。 50。 what we really need at a policy level is to decide where the money will come from to help support good quality local green spaces。”

Boredom Rating for Graduates (out of 10):

  C) Help them build a positive attitude towards life。

  46。 According to one study, what do green spaces do to people?

Administrative/Secretarial jobs10

  D) Lesson their concerns about material well-being。

  A) Improve their work efficiency。

Manufacturing jobs8.1

  47。 What does Dr。 White say people usually do to make themselves happier?

  B) Add to their sustained happiness。

Sales jobs7.8

  A) Earn more money。

  C) Help them build a positive attitude towards life。

Marketing/Advertising7.7

  B) Settle in an urban area。

  D) Lesson their concerns about material well-being。

IT/Telecommunications7.5

  C) Gain fame and popularity。

  47。 What does Dr。 White say people usually do to make themselves happier?

Science Research & Development7.3

  D) Live in a green environment。

  A) Earn more money。 C) Gain fame and popularity。

Media7.1

  48。 What does Dr。 White try to find out about living in a greener urban area?

  B) Settle in an urban area。 D) Live in a green environment。

Law6.9

  A) How it affects different people。 lasts。

  48。 What does Dr。 White try to find out about living in a greener urban area?

Engineering6.9

  B) How strong its positive effect is。 physically。

  A) How it affects different people。 C) How long its positive effect lasts。

Banking/Finance6.6

  C) How long its positive effect

  B) How strong its positive effect is。 D) How it benefits people physically。

Human Resources6.6

  D) How it benefits people

  49。 What did Dr。 White research reveal about people living in a green environment?

Accountancy6.3

  49。 What did Dr。 White research reveal about people living in a green environment?

  A) Their stress was more apparent than real。

Hospitality/Travel5.3

  A) Their stress was more apparent than real。

  B) Their decisions required less deliberation。

Healthcare5.1

  B) Their decisions required less deliberation。

  C) Their memories were greatly strengthened。

Teaching4.0

  C) Their memories were greatly strengthened。

  D) Their communication with others improved。

This survey was commissioned by a teaching agency!

  D) Their communication with others improved。

  50。 According to Dr。 White, what should the government do to build more green spaces in cities?

Teachers were the least bored. 81 per cent of teachers questioned said it is thechallenge of the role, 81% becauseno two days are the same, and 86% said they enjoy theinteraction with people.  64% also rate the opportunity touse their creativity.

  50。 According to Dr。 White, what should the government do to build more green spaces in cities?

  A) Find financial support。

Employees surveyed say they aremainly bored because ofthelack of challengein their jobs (61%),not using their skills or their knowledge60% anddoing the same things every day(50%)The Happiest Professions

  A) Find financial support。

  B) Improve urban planning。

According to the City & Guilds Happiness at Work Indexsome of the happiest graduate jobswere (in order):

  B) Improve urban planning。

  C) Involve local residents in the effort。

doctor

  C) Involve local residents in the effort。

  D) Raise public awareness of the issue。

dentist

  D) Raise public awareness of the issue。

  答案:

armed forces

  (来源:新东方)

  46。 B 47。 A 48。 C 49。 D 50。 A

teachers

上一页 1 2

  Passage Two

leisure & tourism jobs

  Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage。

journalists

  You probably know about the Titanic, but it was actually just one of three state-of-the art (最早进的卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎ ocean ships back in the day。 The Olympic class ships were built by the Harland & Wolff ship makers in Northern Ireland for the White Star Line company。 The Olympic class included the Olympic, the Britannic and the Titanic。 What you may not know is that the Titanic wasn’t even the flagship of this class。 All in all, the Olympic class ships were marvels of sea engineering, 51.but they seemed cursed to suffer disastrous fates。

accountants

  The Olympic launched first in 1910, followed by the Titanic in 1911, and lastly the Britannic in 1914。 The ships had nine decks, and 52.White Star Line decided to focus on marking them the most luxurious ships on the water。

lawyers

  Stretching 269.13 meters, the Olympic class ship were wonders of naval technology, and everyone thought that they would continue to be so for quite some time。 However, all suffered terrible accidents on the open seas。 The Olympic got wrecked before the Titanic did, but it was the only one survive and maintain a successful career of 24 years。 The Titanic was the first to sink after famously hitting a huge iceberg in 1912。 Following this disaster, the Britannic hit a naval mine in 1916 and subsequently sank as well。

marketing

  Each ship was coal-powered by several boilers constantly kept running by exhausted crews below deck。 Most recognizable of the ship designs are the ship‘s smoke stacks, 53.but the fourth stack was actually just artistic in nature and served no functional purpose。 While two of these ship sank, 54。 they were all designed with double hulls (船体) believed to make them “unsinkable”, perhaps a mistaken idea that led to the Titanic‘s and the Britannic’s tragic end。

PR & advertising staff

  The Olympic suffered two crashes with other ships and went on to serve as a hospital ship and troop transport in World WarⅠ。 55。 Eventually, she was taken out of service in 1935, ending the era of the luxurious Olympic class ocean liners。

nurses

  51。 What does the passage say about the three Olympic class ships?

HR staff

  A) They performed marvelously on the sea。

architects,

  B) They could all break the ice in their way。

computing staff

  C) They all experienced terrible misfortunes。

bankers

  D) They were models of modern engineering。

Some of the least happy professions were apparently:

  52。 What did White Star line have in mind when it purchased the three ships?

social workers

  A) Their capacity of sailing across all waters。

civil servants

  B) The utmost comfort passengers could enjoy。

estate agents

  C) Their ability to survive disasters of any kind。

secretaries

  D) The long voyages they were able to undertake。

administrators

  53。 What is said about the fourth stack of the ships?

I'm not sure how reliable this survey is but I'd suspect that some of the factors at work here would bepeople contact, money, job security & autonomy.

  A) It was a mere piece of decoration。

So what do we make of the apparent contradictions here? Of course, such surveys are never particularly accurate, and boredom and happiness are different measures.Teachers may be the least bored, but this doesn't necessarily mean that they are particularly happy in their jobs!

  B) It was the work of a famous artist。

A UK Cabinet Office survey in 2014 has assessed the relationship between jobs and levels of life satisfaction.

  C) It was designed to let out extra smoke。

A moderate link was found between earnings and wellbeing.Some well-paid jobs had low levels of wellbeing and vice versa. For example, despite a typical salary of £39,000, quantity surveyors were the 41st most unhappy occupation out of 274 categories. Farmers earn only £24,500 on average, but had the 8th highest life satisfaction.

  D) It was easily identifiable from afar。

People inoutdoor jobstend to be happier.As well as farmers, agricultural and horticultural managers and farm workers are in the top 25.

  54。 What might have led to the tragic end of the Titanic and the Britannic?

JOB TITLE AND WELLBEING RANK: top 9 happiest jobsMEAN INCOME (£)

  A) Their unscientific designs。

(1) Clergy20,568

  B) Their captains’ misjudgment。

(2) Chief executives and senior officials117,700

  C) The assumption that they were built with the latest technology。

(3) Managers and proprietors in agriculture and horticulture31,721

  D) The belief that they could never sink with a double-layer body。

(4) Company secretaries18,176

  55。 What happened to the ship Olympic in the end?

(5) Quality assurance and regulatory professionals42,898

  A) She was used to carry troops。

(6) Health care practice managers31,267

  B) She was sunk in World War I。

(7) Medical practitioners70,648

  C) She was converted in to a hospital ship。

(8) Farmers24,520

  D) She was retired after her naval service。

(9) Hotel and accommodation managers and proprietors32,470

  答案:

For the full survey results of all 274 occupations seehere

  51。 C 52。 B 53。 A 54。 D 55。 D

Don't become a lumberjack!

  来源:新东方

Asurvey by CareerCastfound that lumberjack is the worst job in America due to low pay, high danger and dwindling job opportunities. Journalist was second worst due to closures in the print industry. The best jobs in the US in order were found to be: mathematician, professor, statistician, actuary, audiologist, dental hygienist, software engineer, systems analyst, occupational therapist and speech therapist.

  作者:白银高校 新东方李逸飞先生

Well-being

An excellent survey on the well-being of Plymouth University students and graduates by Dr. Glen Crust and Dr. Helen Hicks found thatstudents with the highest well-beingwere those on medical, nursing, pharmacy and teaching courses whereasstudents with the lowest well-beingwere those on finance, law, management and economics courses. You can find the full survey resultshere. Well-being was measured by amalgamating scores for: "how satisfied you are with your life"; "the extent you feel the things you do in your life are worthwhile"; "how happy you felt yesterday" and how anxious you felt yesterday (inverse).

Occupations with the highest well-beingincluded health professionals such as physiotherapists, nurses, midwives, podiatrists and paramedics, further education teachers, surveyors, accountants and management consultants. As you might expect, graduates who got the type of work they wanted were happier than those who only had one job offer which they had to accept.

Graduates with first class degreeshave on average a higher well-being than those with 2:1s, who have a higher well-being than those with 2:2s and thirds. This may well be because graduates with higher degree classes tend to be in better or more appropriate jobs.Women graduatesreport slightly higher levels of well-being on average andwhite graduateswere found to have higher well-being scores than Black/African/Caribbean/Black British respondents.

Are employees of small businesses and the self-employed more or less satisfied?

A survey by the TUC found thatemployees in small businesses are more satisfied at work. They were also found to be the most committed and loyal to their organisations. They also felt most engaged by their employer andhad the most freedom to choose their working patterns. There were far fewer reports of bullying,lower stress levelsandless complaints about long working hours.

The Chairman of the Federation of Small Businesses said "In terms of the way they treat their staff, small businesses consistently out perform their bigger competitors. Small business owners know that the greatest asset is their staff and they are more likely to treat them as individuals and recognise their needs. By having a committed and loyal workforce that has a say in how the organisation is run, the smallest business has a bigger advantage."

Having said thislarger organisationsdo tend to offer higher initial salaries, better training and more chance to specialise. See our page onWorking in smaller organisations

People who have set up their own business tend to be happier.They take responsibility for their own future, and take control of their own destiny. Self employed people are happier about their work-life balance even though they work the longest hours - because they havemore controlover their time. See ourself employment pagefor more about this.

Research by Sonya Lyubomirsky (University of California) using data for over 250,000 people found that being happy lead to higher incomes, greater productivity and quality of work, more satisfying and longer marriages, more friends, stronger social support, and richer social interactions, more activity, energy, andflow, and better physical health.

A study in 2007 byNattavudh Powdthaveefound thatmeeting regularly with friends, relatives and neighbours had the same effect on your happiness as a large increase in salary. Being married or living together was also highly beneficial.

Commuting

Some new research by the Office of National Statistics (ONS).has found that people who spend between an hour and 90 minutes getting to work each day are more miserable than their colleagues. and people travelling by bus are even more unhappy.

Commuters have on average lower life satisfaction, a lower sense that daily activities are worthwhile, lower levels of happiness and higher anxiety than non-commuters. People who worked from home had higher personal well-being even compared to those who commute for less than a quarter of an hour.

A study at the University of East Angliafound that most commuters prefer taking public transport to driving due to the stress caused from driving to work. ‘Active commuters’ who switch from driving to work to walking or cycling are under less strain, and therefore perform better in the workplace reinforcing the idea that there are positive psychological effects of exercise, plus the physical health benefits. Lead researcher Adam Martin said:“Commuters reported feeling better when travelling by public transport, compared to driving. You might think that things like disruption to services or crowds of commuters might have been a cause of considerable stress. But as buses or trains also give people time to relax, read, socialise, and there is usually an associated walk to the bus stop or railway station, it appears to cheer people up.”

Also see the HR Grapevine article:Commuters want to cry by the time they get to work

Other factors reducing happiness at work include:

Long working hours

"People who value money, more than other goals are less satisfied with their income and with their lives as a whole."

Prof. Martin Seligman

Materialistic people tend to be more unhappy and dissatisfied with their lives. They tend to be self centered and this is detrimental to happiness. Research found that those who spent a higher proportion of their income on friends, family and others ended up significantly happier than those who treated themselves to luxuries.

Being happy doesn't mean that everything is perfect. It means that you've decided to look beyond the imperfections.

Gerard Way

Having to relocateto a new area to get a job(as you lose some contact with friends and relatives)

Tight deadlines

Lack ofcontrol

Being unemployed.

Green spaces

Researchers at the European Centre for Environment and Human Healthfound that living in an urban area with green spaces has a long term positive impact on people's mental well-being. Moving to an area with green spaces had asustained positive effect, whereas pay rises or promotions, only gave a short-term boost to happiness. People living in greener urban areasshow less signs of depression or stress.

Research at the University of Queenslandfound that office plants made staff happier and increased productivity by 15%

How important is money?

The Easterlin Paradox

The economist Richard Easterlin found a paradox: high incomes do correlate with happiness, butlong term, increased income doesn’t correlate with increased happiness.

Researchers examined 37 countries over the long term (measurements were made over 22 years) and found that happiness ratings within a country didn't increase with income. In China, S. Korea, and Chile, per capitaincome doubled is less than two decades yet all these countries showed slight declines in happiness.Easterlin said"We may need to focus policy on urgent personal concerns such as health and family life, rather than on the mere escalation of material goods."

Money is surprisingly not particularly important once you have enough to meet all your basic requirements.Extra money doesn't make you much happier.A pay rise does make you happy but only for a short while as you quickly become adapted to it. Thisis because we rapidly get used to what we have (see thehedonic treadmillbelow).

In the UK, life satisfaction has decreased since the 1970’sdespite a 60% rise in Gross Domestic Product in that time, again showing that buying and

owning consumer goods makes no difference to well being. In1998 Bhutan allowed intelevision and the Internet into the country for the first time (previously they had been banned). This lead to an almost immediately increased craving for a Western lifestyle and products and an increased dissatisfaction with life - see thehedonic treadmill below.

A new job, house or car gives a short term boost, but quickly get accustomed to it. Having your finances under control (e.g. not being in debt) is more important than a large wage, although earning less than most of the people you know also affects your happiness (keeping up with the Joneses). There is a higher occurrence of depression in those who think happiness comes via money, fame, and beauty. People are more motivated by the fear of losing something than the hope of gaining something.

After several years lottery winners revert to their previous levels of happiness.

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